AERDI (True Common)
The most widespread tongue in the Flanaess, Aerdi is directly derived from Middle Aerdi via Old Oeridian, and is sometimes called Modern Aerdi. Aerdi was the official language of the modern Great Kingdom, and is still considered the dominant language of the North Kingdom, Ahlissa, the Solnor Compact, the Sea Barons, the Pale, the Urnst states, Ratik, the Iron League (Onnwal, Sunndi, and Irongate), the Lordship of the Isles, the Bandit Kingdoms, and Nyrond (where the dialect is termed Nyrondal by linguists). The tremendous reach of the Great Kingdom in past centuries, from the Solnor to the Yatils, has established Aerdi as the standard communication medium across the Flanaess, so much that it is often referred to as the "Common Tongue." Aerdi is also a popular language in Tenh, Greyhawk, Hardby, the Wild Coast, the Pomarj, Dyvers, and the Shield lands.
Also called "Keolandish," Keoish is the primary language of the Sheldomar Valley, reaching up into Bissel. It is directly derived from Old Keoish, a combination of Old Oeridian and Ancient Suloise and is difficult to learn for non-natives. Though significant differences can be found in regional dialects, such as in the Ulek states (Ulek or lortmils Keoish) and the Hold of the Sea Princes (Jeklea Keoish), they are all mutually intelligible. The language is understood as far east as Greyhawk and Dyvers, and is the main accepted tongue amongst seafarers of the southern waters. Save for Aerdi, Keoish has more speakers than any other language in the Flanaess. Keoish is regarded as the official language of Keoland, the Gran March, and Bissel, and is the dominant human tongue in the Ulek states, Hold of the Sea Princes, the Yeomanry, and Sterich. Keoish is also widely spoken in Geoff, Ket, the Vale of the Mage, the Pomarj, Celene, Verbobonc, Dyvers, Greyhawk, and the Wild Coast.
Ferrond is the official language of Veluna, Furyondy, Dyvers, and Verbobonc, which made up most of the former Viceroyalty of Ferrond. A dialect of Ferrond known as Stamtaal is spoken in Perrenland. The third most common tongue in the Flanaess, after Aerdi and Keoish, Ferrond is also well-known westward into Bissel and Ket, northward into Perrenland and Highvale, and eastward to Greyhawk, the Shield lands, and even the Urnst states. Related to Aerdi and derived from Old Oeridian, Ferrond is a common trading language in the mid-western Flanaess, as well as on the shores of the Nyr Dyv. An archaic form of Ferrond is reputedly spoken in Blackmoor, and a corrupt dialect of Ferrond (with Orcish, Goblin, and Abyssal influences) is spoken in the western region of Iuz's empire.
Ancient Baklunish is the standard literary form of Baklunish used in the ancient Baklunish Empire. Today it is most often used in religion, mythology, and poetry. Ancient Baklunish is also the language of all official documents and courtly proceedings in Ekbir, Tusmit, and Zeif.
Many colloquial Baklunish dialects used in Baklunish lands (Ekbir, Ket, the Plains of the Paynims, Tusmit, and Zeif) are based upon Ancient Baklunish, and are collectively called Low Baklunish.
The term "Flan," though many mistakenly consider it to be a monolithic ethnic group, is properly applied to several different cultures present in the Flanaess before the Great Migrations. Most scholars identify a minimum of four different human pre-migration cultures which have subsequently been lumped together under the term "Flan:"
Now a dead language, Ancient Sulmitic was the chief language of the Flan kingdoms of Sulm and Itar. Ancient Sulmitic is the oldest known example of a Central Flan language, and is the direct ancestor of modern Sulmitic.
Ancient Sueloise became all but extinct after the destruction of the Sueloise Empire. Today it is only spoken by the Scarlet Brotherhood and a few scholars. Ancient Sueloise exists in its written state for those who would delve into the surviving tomes of Suel arcana. Transliteration into modern languages is difficult, and perilous when used in spellcasting, as the significance of certain inflections has been lost over the centuries.
Futhark; Oeridian Alphabet (Frost Barbarians)
Also known as the Cold Tongue, Fruz is the language of the Thillonrian peninsula. Speakers of Fruz can also be found in Ratik and Blackmoor. Derived from Ancient Sueloise, Fruz is marked by significant influence from Northeastern Flan, especially in the Hold of Stonefist. Five different dialects are known, one for each of the barbarian tribes (Snow, Frost, and Ice Barbarians of the Thillronian, plus the Sea Barbarians in Blackmoor), in addition to Stonehold. All dialects are mutually intelligible, though the Stonefist dialect shows far more outside influence (from both Colten and Arapahi). Though derived from Suloise, Fruz bears little resemblance to its ancestor.
Rhopan is spoken by the nomadic Rhennee, and is sometimes called Rhennee Cant, because it borrows many terms from other languages, including the argot of several thieves' organizations. Rhopan has no known relatives, though some scholars have tried linking it to Central Ancient Flan.
An obscure Oeridian tribal language, Ferral is now spoken only by officials of the Iron League. Ferral is not considered a living language, as it is used chiefly for military command and identification purposes. Many fear that this code-tongue had been compromised by agents of the Scarlet Brotherhood, but rumor has it that a magic-laced version is being developed in Irongate.
Nyrondese is the collective term for local dialects in Nyrond. These dialects derived from Old Nyrondese, the tribal dialect of Old High Oeridian spoken by the Oeridian tribes of Nyrond previous to their conquest by the Aerdy tribe. Nyrondese is unintelligible to speakers of Aerdi. Nyrondese is mainly spoken in rural areas of Nyrond, where it is the primary language of peasants, shopkeepers, and other commoners. Learned folk speak Aerdi as well.
The native tongue of the Olman peoples of the Olman Isles and the Amedio Jungle, this language can also be heard among current and former Olman slaves in the Hold of the Sea Princes. Current slaves are forbidden from speaking their native tongue. The Olman alphabet is actually a vast collection of complex pictograms.
STAMTAAL (see FERROND)
Technically this is not a different language (though it usually sounds so to non- Perrenlanders), but a dialect of Ferrond, characterized by some elements of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation drawn from Flannic languages. Stamtaal is chief of Perrenland's three official tongues (the other two being Berzirsh and Spaenhah), and is spoken throughout the nation. It usually takes a month for speakers of Ferrond to be able to speak Stamtaal with reasonable fluency, while it takes speakers of Stamtaal about half that time to achieve similar fluency in Ferrond-until then, an Intelligence check of DC 10 is needed to understand the basic meaning of a communication.
Also known as Berzirkish, Berzirsh is one of Perrenland's three official languages (along with Spaenhah and Stamtaal). Derived from Old Oeridian, Berzirsh was brought to Perrenland by Oeridian tribes who were absorbed by Flan locals in the later phases of the Great Migrations. Heavily influenced by Flanic Spaenhah and Baklunic Ordai, Berzirsh bears little resemblance to any Oeridian tongue other than Velondi.
SPAENHAH (see FLAN)
Oldest of the three official languages of Perrenland (the other two being Berzirsh and Stamtaal), Spaenhah (pronounced SCHPAYN-ah) is descended from Northwestern Flan, and therefore distantly related to Voll and Uirtag.
A minor language derived from Old Oeridian, Velondi is spoken by many rural folks along the Velverdyva. This tongue is descended from the tribal dialect of Oeridians who settled in the Velverdyva valley before the Great Kingdom established a foothold in the region, and is thus nearly one thousand years old. Velondi has no written form.
The tongue is spoken by the Aerdi tribe of Oeridians, which became the common speech for their Great Kingdom. A number of scholars maintain a distinction between Middle Aerdi and Old Aerdi, which was a tribal dialect of Old Oeridian spoken by the Aerdi before the rise of the Great Kingdom proper. Middle Aerdi was prevalent throughout much of the Flanaess, and is the direct ancestor of both Modern Aerdi and Ferrond.
Also known as Old High Oeridian or High Oeridian, and spoken by many Oerid tribes. Now regarded as a dead language, Old Oeridian eventually evolved into Aerdi. Many books and documents of the early Great Kingdom were written in Old Oeridian, and the language is still widely known among sages and scholars of the eastern Flanaess.
SULMITIC, ANCIENT (see FLAN)
Now a dead language, Ancient Sulmitic was the chief language of the Flan kingdoms of Sulm and Itar. Ancient Sulmitic is the oldest known example of a Central Flan language and is the direct ancestor of modern Sulmitic.